Chełm is a city with the only chalk underground in Europe, which can be visited on a tourist route. The city also has several valuable monuments from the Baroque period, including the Sending Apostles Church.
The beginnings of the city are related to the existence of a network of castles on the Polish-Ruthenian border, known as the Czerwienskie Groves. In 981 it was conquered by Włodzimierz Wielki, which started the almost 400-year period of Chełm belonging to Kievan Rus. In 1240, Daniel Halicki moved his seat from Halicz. The city was incorporated into Poland only in 1387.
High Hill is a trace of an early medieval settlement in the place of today's Chałma. Other monuments from the Middle Ages have not survived due to damage in subsequent wars, especially the invasion of Bohdan Chmielnicki's Cossacks in the mid-17th century.
From the 16th century, chalk was mined in Chełm. On the other hand, already in the Middle Ages, corridors were dug into the soft rock under the buildings of the city, which were used for evacuation in the event of an invasion and for hiding from the enemy. In later centuries, the chalk mined in this way was sold, which contributed to the increase in the wealth of the city. Today, the former corridors are Chełm's greatest attraction and function as the Chełm Cretaceous Underground.
The most important monuments in Chełm include the Marian Sanctuary on Góra Chełmska. The former Greek Catholic church with a baroque appearance is surrounded by residential buildings of the former monastery. On the bell tower, erected in the 19th century, there is an observation deck from which you can admire the panorama of the area. Górka Chełmska was the site of archaeological excavations during which the remains of the castle from the reign of Daniel Halicki were discovered.
The buildings of the city, which come mainly from the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, are distinguished by the Baroque Church of the Sending of Apostles. Its interior has retained its original 18th-century interior.