Nysa is one of the oldest cities in Silesia. In the past, it was also a fortress, and the remains of these fortifications are still visible in the architecture. You can also see the Gothic Basilica of St. James and Agnes.
The origins of Nysa date back to the 10th century, when a trading settlement operated here. According to unconfirmed reports, the stronghold was supposed to be founded by Bolesław Krzywousty. From the end of the 12th century, Nysa was in the hands of Wrocław bishops, who created the principality of Nysa and Otmuchów. It developed until the 17th century as an important trade and craft center with numerous privileges, including brewing beer.
Thanks to the care of Wrocław bishops, who moved their main residence to Nysa in the 16th century, many wonderful buildings were built here. The oldest of them is the Basilica of St. James and Agnes, which is one of the leading examples of Gothic architecture in Silesia. Next to the church, there is an unfinished 45-meter tower, which was supposed to be 100 meters high. Currently, it houses the Treasury of St. James with a wonderful collection of works of sacred and liturgical art. A memento of the former glory of Nysa is also the baroque Bishop's Palace, which is today the seat of the Museum in Nysa.
The second important aspect of the spatial development of Nysa was the construction of its fortifications. The first were built at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries and the Ziębice Tower has survived. With time, the fortifications were expanded, and from the 18th century Nysa became a city-fortress. To this day, remains of fortifications, such as the Bastion of St. Jadwiga is the most important attractions of Nysa.
During World War II, Nysa was severely damaged by artillery fire. A large part of the buildings in the city center was destroyed. After the war, the ruins of the houses were demolished and the bricks were taken away for the reconstruction of Warsaw. Currently, the square, with its shape preserved since the Middle Ages, is mainly surrounded by new tenement houses. There is also a modern town hall with a lookout tower and a forged Beautiful Well, where tourists like to take pictures of themselves.